Intimidating nicknames for boys
As Pratt would later write in a letter to a magazine, It is this nature in our red brother that is better dead than alive, and when we agree with the oft-repeated sentiment that the only good Indian is a dead one, we mean this characteristic of the Indian.
We will also look in depth at both the history and philosophy of Pratt.
Carlisle was his brainchild, and thus both the school itself and the movement it gave life to are intricately related to his actions and words.
Many Native Americans now faced a harsh and unknown way of living.
For them, the reservation system was a new and almost completely controlled existence. Marshall III writes that a “loss of dignity came on the heels of [the] loss of freedom” (Marshall III, 2007, page 140).
Known as “Indian fighters,” they were used for the purpose of expanding the post-war borders of the United States further into Native American territory.
Moving swiftly, Pratt ordered for the captives to have their hair cut off, dressed them in military uniforms, organized them into systems of hierarchy that mirrored his military experience, forced them to learn English, and more (Atleo, 2008).Soon, teachers poured into the prison from the surrounding community of St. Most were local women who volunteered their time, but some also traded their involvement for such things as archery lessons (Landis, 1996).
Both physically and mentally traumatized by their prison experience, some captives began to listen.During this time, Pratt came to the conclusion that the only solution for the indigenous peoples – to protect them from complete annihilation as a result of the “progress” of white expansion – would be to assimilate them into “white society.” Pratt had been convinced by the “humanitarian gentlemen” philosophy that native people should not be exterminated, but that they should instead be siphoned off into the advancement of white society (Adams, 1997).Pratt was a determined and ambitious army officer, and he was not the type to sit idly by. Marion, which he had requested, gave him the opportunity to implement the philosophies he had developed.Yet, it is one we must attempt to familiarize ourselves with in order to understand the powerful role education has and can play as an instrument of oppression. These warriors were American Indians, captured in what is known as the Red River War, and were now sent to serve an indefinite amount of time in prison for their convictions. Marion, a former Spanish fort turned into a prison, was in an environment unfamiliar and hostile to these American Indians.The prisoners – who were comprised of Comanche, Caddo, Southern Cheyenne, and Kiowa – were not prepared for the extremely hot and humid environment of Florida (Anderson, 2000), (Adams, 1997).Pratt was also known for his famous slogan “kill the Indian, save the man.” This slogan was based off his intense passion to witness the transformation of natives into a replication of the white society in the United States.