Radioactive carbon dating ppt
Cl, and the noble gases, together with other tracers whose concentrations vary over time, such as the chlorofluorocarbons or sulfur hexafluoride, are commonly used to estimate recharge rates.
This review discusses some of the advantages and problems of using these tracers to estimate recharge rates.
The suite of tracers allows recharge to be estimated over timescales ranging from a few years to several hundred thousand years, which allows both the long-term and modern behaviour of groundwater systems to be documented.
Additionally, many recharge studies have utilised existing infrastructure that may not be ideal for this purpose (e.g., wells with long screens that sample groundwater several kilometres from the recharge area).
Ideal recharge studies would collect sufficient information to optimise the use of specific tracers and minimise the problems of mixing and dispersion.
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In general they are volatile, but less so than their parent alkanes.
In addition to issues relating to the sampling and interpretation of specific tracers, macroscopic dispersion and mixing in groundwater flow systems limit how precisely groundwater residence times and recharge rates may be estimated.The densities of CFCs are higher than their corresponding alkanes.In general the density of these compounds correlates with the number of chlorides.Because of their polarity, the CFCs are useful solvents, and their boiling points make them suitable as refrigerants.The CFCs are far less flammable than methane, in part because they contain fewer C-H bonds and in part because, in the case of the chlorides and bromides, the released halides quench the free radicals that sustain flames.It also includes the picture I got pupils to annotate to consider what causes light to be blocked out.\n They loved colouring in the grapes and I had a lot of positive feedback!